野火是火灾致命破坏性的极端例子。似乎每年都有更多的野火,世界各地的野火肯定比以往任何时候都更大、更致命。野火主导了公众对火灾最极端后果的看法。

这次2020年回顾将重点介绍TheBigRedGuide.com发表的一些关于野火的文章,并提供完整的原始文章链接。美国西部11个州的野火季节起步比去年慢.在这个季节的上半期,北极的野火达到了新的水平,尤其是在阿拉斯加和西伯利亚。

更大的火灾燃烧

根据美国国家环境信息中心(National Centers for Environmental Information)的数据,过去两年,西部的野火造成160人死亡,400亿美元损失。目前的趋势是更大的火灾会烧毁更多的土地,尤其是在气候温暖的年份。

2020年初,澳大利亚是一场野火灾难的中心。持续的高温和干旱加剧了野火,而且澳大利亚每个州都发生过火灾尽管新南威尔士州受到的打击最为严重。强风使浓烟和火灾迅速蔓延,并导致人员死亡。墨尔本和悉尼等大城市也受到了影响;大火毁坏了远郊的房屋,浓烟破坏了城市地区的空气质量。整个城镇都被大火吞噬了。

活跃的野火季节

最近发生野火的另一个原因是闪电,超过1万次的闪电引发了376起火灾

在野火的背景下,即使是看起来很小的事件也会产生非常大的影响。例如,一个蓝色烟雾爆炸2020年9月5日,在加州尤卡帕,埃尔多拉多牧场公园发生了一场大火。这个烟火装置本质上是一枚烟雾弹,旨在向空中发射粉色或蓝色的烟柱,以表明即将出生的婴儿的性别。近期野火的另一个原因是闪电,在2020年8月16日和17日,超过1万次闪电引发了376起火灾。

全球大流行给消防队员带来了麻烦什么时候会活跃野火季节。大流行可能会减少消防人员;培训课程被取消、推迟或远程进行。旅行风险也破坏了从全国或世界各地召集消防员帮助扑灭野火的传统做法。

解决森林管理

社交距离与消防单位的团队精神和友情格格不入。在大流行期间,所有人一起吃饭和睡觉的公共营地是不可行的。取而代之的是更小的营地,打包的食物被送到每个营地。如果有人的新型冠状病毒检测呈阳性,规模较小的团队可以减少对其进行广泛隔离的必要性。

无人机是解决森林管理和野火预防的工具。无人机发现在战斗和防止野火时具有多种用途.其中一项应用是丢弃能引发较小火灾的自燃“龙蛋”,以修剪杂草丛生的森林,并帮助防止更具破坏性的特大火灾。龙蛋系统是由能自动点火的塑料球组成的,这个塑料球和乒乓球差不多大。多年来,龙蛋一直是行业标准,通常从飞机或直升机上扔下。

可燃的植物材料

研究人员正在寻找新的方法来应对野火的风险

这些球体被高锰酸钾粉末填充,并在下落时注入乙二醇作为点火器。大约30秒后,这个反应让小球燃烧起来,这足够让它们穿过森林树冠弹到地面。

研究人员正在寻找新的方法来应对野火的风险。它们包括深度学习和人工智能(AI)等工具,以更好地了解野火并控制其强度。该模型可以用来揭示火灾风险最大的地区。一种新的深度学习模型使用遥感和卫星数据追踪西部12个州的燃料水分水平,实际上是追踪容易燃烧的植物材料的数量和它们的干燥程度。

野火的破坏性影响

科学清楚地表明,减少野火破坏性影响和对生命财产威胁的方法是主动管理与火一起进化的生态系统.这意味着以正确的方式和地点重新引入火,并通过机械处理模拟火对森林结构的影响。

落基山研究站的火灾、燃料和烟雾科学项目(RMRS)侧重于风险管理的科学,从如何处理燃料和减轻风险,到帮助社区评估和减轻风险,并增强抵御能力消防模拟研究所副项目经理兼所长Thomas C. Dzomba说。了解野火的根本原因有助于我们更好地从长远角度控制野火。

加强消防科学

该实验室的主要目标是提高火灾科学水平,同时也影响作战火灾反应

其中一个因素是气候变化,气候变化通过增加热量、改变雨雪模式和改变植物群落,创造了容易发生野火的条件。但是也有造成野火规模和强度不断增加的其他因素.一个是澳大利亚、加利福尼亚和其他野火发生率增加的地区的森林状况。例如,在加州,众所周知,森林是不健康的,需要更多的处方燃烧和其他疏林措施。

在将数据转化为有用信息以推进消防科学的第一线是加州大学圣地亚哥分校的WIFIRE实验室.WIFIRE实验室是由美国国家科学基金会(NSF)资助的一个项目发展起来的。该实验室的主要目标是增强火灾科学,同时也影响作战火灾反应,而且越来越实时。

野火风险监控

2018年11月,加州天堂市附近的布特县发生了一场为期17天的悲惨的“营火”改进野火风险管理和监测的研究在未来。这项研究的愿景是“一个多层次野火风险评估的计算平台”。

研究人员试图重新定义野火风险监测和管理,以提供一个平台,供野火管理人员、应急响应人员和公用事业公司用于计划、应对和降低野火风险。在澳大利亚,新的资源正在解决森林大火的增长。

预防和控制野火

安德鲁·福雷斯特和尼古拉·福雷斯特已承诺向该公司投入5000万澳元(3500万美元)通过Minderoo基金会发起的火灾和洪水复原计划,目标是在计划实施期间再筹集4.5亿欧元(合3.2亿美元)的直接或实物支持。

这项雄心勃勃的投资的目标是到2025年使澳大利亚成为防火和抗洪的先锋

雄心勃勃的投资的目标是将澳大利亚在2025年的抗火和洪水抵抗中。它是一种大胆的愿景,需要一种创新的方法,而且该组织从20世纪60年代美国阿波罗使命汲取灵感。实际上,它将成为“Moonshot”,以推进预防和控制野火的原因。具体而言,首次任务,防火盾,寻求确保澳大利亚没有危险的丛林大火将截至2025年的时间超过一个小时。

当地消防部门

森林大火造成财产损失和伤害的最大风险来自野外-城市界面(WUI),这是指建筑物和建筑环境开始与野外植被混合的区域。随着人们搬到荒地附近,越来越多的这样的地方被创造出来,以利用它们的自然美景和隐私。

“准备好了,,走吧!(显示)的计划努力增加当地消防部门与生活在森林火灾危险地区的居民的接触。国际消防队长协会(IAFC)的一个项目“准备,准备,开始!”为消防部门提供了工具和资源,让他们更多地了解荒地火灾的风险,以及居民应该采取的行动,以降低风险。

与LinkedIn分享 与Twitter分享 和Facebook分享 与What's App分享 和Facebook分享
下载版本 下载版本

作者简介

拉里•安德森
拉里•安德森编辑器中,TheBigRedGuide.com,诺丁山媒体

以防你错过了

联邦存款保险公司国际2021年评论:尽管8月炎热,但在挥之不去的大流行中,节目取得了胜利
联邦存款保险公司国际2021年评论:尽管8月炎热,但在挥之不去的大流行中,节目取得了胜利

自2019年以来首次在印第安纳波利斯回来,FDIC International 2021提供了全面的会议,动手培训和设备展览会。出勤率下降,但在取消和延迟造成的Covid-19大流行后,每个人都觉得很高兴回到展会上。尽管对Covid-19和Delta变体持续令人担忧,但掩蔽合规性很低。很少有社会疏远。在许多方面,该节目似乎回到了正常。该活动的亮点是国家堕落的消防员基金会(NFFF)9/11楼梯攀登。对于与会者来说,这是一个方法,以纪念并记住消防社区中的人,他们在9/11悲剧中给予了生命。数以百计的FDIC参与者通过攀登或走上世界贸易中心的110个故事等同于致敬。MSA的MANAR手持设备在始终如一,安全是FDIC展览中的巨大主题,包括在手持工具中的开发,安全是FDIC展览的巨大主题,包括手持工具的开发。MSA安全显示了新的月球手持设备,有助于将消防队连接,将方向和距离信息与热成像进行连接,以帮助查找分隔的队友并减少响应时间。 LUNAR uses cloud technology to increase fire-scene management capabilities for incident commanders. LUNAR can be used as a stand-alone device or as part of an MSA SCBA (self-contained breathing apparatus) system. Thermal imaging with edge detection identifies hot spots and ventilation points, so as to simplify navigation through low-visibility environments. Tethered drone and Reveal FirePRO X thermal camera FotoKite (Perspective Robotics AG), which has a joint development agreement with MSA Safety, featured a tethered drone that hovers over the site of an emergency, in order to provide networking capabilities through the tether for better connectivity. Seek Thermal offers the ‘smallest and lightest’ thermal imaging camera, available for US$ 799 and seeks to bring the benefits of thermal technology to every position on the fire team. The Reveal FirePRO X can now be charged using a four-station charging dock priced at US$ 399. The compact size makes the FirePRO X easy to carry and manage, while its high resolution and fast frame rate ensure superior images. Teledyne gas detection systems exhibited Teledyne displayed a range of gas detection systems, starting with the simple Protégé ZM carbon monoxide meter that can clip onto pockets, helmets, and EMS bags. A new product is the Gas Laser, a hand-held device that can quickly scan common venting points from a safe distance, in order to identify the presence of dangerous explosive gas. Teledyne recently acquired FLIR and the combined companies will provide a spectrum of imaging technologies and products spanning X-ray through infrared and from components to complete imaging systems. FDIC International’s Innovation Hub focused on new technologies coming to the fire service Innovation Hub FDIC International’s Innovation Hub focused on new technologies coming to the fire service, featured in a presentation theater on the show floor. Leading the initiative was SafeTech, a College Station, Texas-based non-profit organization, whose mission is to bring new technologies to first responders and armed forces. One featured company was Tracks North America, which provides unmanned vehicles with fork-lift capabilities. Another was Infysort, which makes superabsorbent pellets – ‘hyper-blown polypropylene sorbent nanomaterial’ that can absorb 50 to 60 times its weight in oil. Hale Products SAM control system HURST Jaws of Life demonstrated eDRAULIC 3.0, a new underwater power extrication tool The SAM control system, by Hale Products, is gaining in popularity, offering computerized/integrated water flow controls that manage a fire truck’s pump, tank, intakes and discharges using touch-screen display for simplified interface. The new SAM Smart Nozzle allows firemen to control flow from the end of the fire hose. HURST Jaws of Life demonstrated eDRAULIC 3.0, a new underwater power extrication tool that can withstand salt water. The Lifeline Firehose provides a source of continuous breathable air coming from the nozzle of a fire hose. The patented coupler design enables the continuous air supply, which can also be used to power air tools. Seeking to help small and medium fire departments replace paper documentation, incident management systems offer low-cost digitization. Environmental awareness From Rosenbauer A topic among fire apparatus companies is idle reduction systems designed to shut off the main engine in a fire apparatus when not needed, eliminating loud diesel engine noise and exhaust, while maintaining power for lighting and air conditioning, for example. It is a reflection of growing environmental concerns among fire manufacturers. For example, Rosenbauer’s Green Star system makes idle reduction easy, using electronic controls to shut down the chassis engine on-scene (if the fire pump is not engaged or no aerial operations under way), and starting a diesel-driven Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). Pierce Volterra zero-emissions pumpers The first Pierce Volterra zero-emissions pumper has been placed in service in Madison Pierce launched their Volterra platform of electric vehicles. The first Pierce Volterra zero-emissions pumper has been placed in service in Madison, Wisconsin. At FDIC International 2021, the Pierce booth included an electric vehicle technology kiosk and took attendees through the electric fire truck’s attributes. CMC Rescue Rope and Harness Systems CMC Rescue Inc. demonstrated rope and harness systems for rescue operations, including special duffle bags and access packs for easy transport of harnesses. The CMC Clutch is now available in 13 mm and 11 mm models, for hauling, lowering, ascending, descending, belaying and deploying twin-tension rope systems. The CMC Triskelion 10-foot tripod features rapid deployment, for example, over a hole where a rescue is taking place and is certified to NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) standards.

锂离子电池导致全球垃圾火灾
锂离子电池导致全球垃圾火灾

最近,在英国柯克代尔的Gaskells垃圾回收厂发生了一场火灾,周日凌晨,一波又一波的浓烟笼罩了利物浦北部的天空。消防队员与大火搏斗了12个小时,附近的居民被建议留在室内,关闭窗户。大量的废料在燃烧,消防人员利用空中平台到达火灾的部分区域。这次活动代表了火灾对废物和回收计划的挑战,这是一个重大的全球问题。垃圾、纸张和塑料制品几乎占垃圾火灾的一半。其他容易发生火灾的废物设施包括废金属、有机废物、化学品、建筑及拆卸(C&D)和电子废料。2020年,美国垃圾回收设施发生火灾317起,加州、俄亥俄州、德克萨斯州和纽约州发生的火灾最多。锂离子电池在废物流中的贡献锂离子电池是全球垃圾火灾的一个因素最近垃圾火灾增加的一个可能原因是锂离子电池的使用(和处置)的增加。在我们这个便携式电子产品和电动汽车的时代,这些可充电电池无处不在。电池内的物质处于压力下,所以任何刺穿都会在锂和空气中的水之间产生反应,产生热量,并可能引起火灾。 There is also danger in the release of fluoride gases when the batteries ignite. Lithium-ion batteries in the waste stream are a factor in waste fires across the globe, including Japan, Austria, Sweden, France, German, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and the United States. Other Likely causes of waste fires Other causes of waste fires include aerosols, chemicals and butane cans; hot and dry environments; recycling of chemicals and hazardous materials; sparks from equipment; and arson. Some observers have suggested that the pandemic may have contributed to waste fires through the disposal of half-empty bottles of alcohol-based sanitizer, which are flammable. Enabling Early detection with thermal cameras Thermal cameras can be connected to sprinklers or automated fire doors to provide early response As the fire in Kirkdale illustrates, extinguishing a waste fire is time-consuming and resource-intensive. However, early detection can address the risk more efficiently. For example, thermals cameras can be used to monitor temperatures inside and outside a waste plant. The cameras can be programmed to provide an alarm when a predefined temperature is reached (as a warning), and again when a higher temperature is reached (an alarm). Smart algorithms enable these cameras to avoid false alarms triggered by, for example, sunlight or cars driving by. The cameras can also be used for routine inspections, for instance, to identify electrical faults, over-heating equipment and other potential ignition sources. Thermal cameras can also be connected to sprinklers or automated fire doors to provide early response. fire prevention plan Waste site managers should devise a fire prevention plan (FPP) that can minimize the likelihood of a fire, seek to extinguish fire within four hours, and minimize the spread of fire to neighboring areas. Fire is also used to manage and dispose of waste. As much as a billion tons of waste is burned in open and uncontrolled fires around the world each year, or almost half of the waste generated. Waste disposal fires typically burn at lower temperatures, and harmful substances such as dioxins can form when PVC plastic is burned, which can adversely affect human health. Burning plastics in open fires releases CO2 and other greenhouse gases, and plastics that are not totally burned can pollute nearby land and water. Burning waste can have negative consequences for the urban poor and waste pickers who are more likely to be exposed to it.

防火:成本与机会分析
防火:成本与机会分析

随着组织开始计划明年的经营预算,这是一个仔细观察防火的好时机,它的成本计算和它所提供的价值是什么。这是看与防火和寻找有关的政策和程序的完美时间,寻找改进和优化领域。为了帮助促进本讨论,我转向2017年消防研究基金会提出的报告,该报告基于从1980年至2014年收集的数据探讨了美国的总火灾成本。我欣赏数据的改善机会该报告本身有点日期,提出了对火灾的实际成本的看法,优先事项基于花费并凸显改进机会。该报告定义了总火灾成本,作为消防事故导致的所有净支出的集体和所有净亏损。该报告界定了总火灾成本,因为所有净消防净支出的集体良好的新闻是勤奋的工作,只能偿还损失,只有代表总成本的一小部分,预防为2731亿美元(占总数的83​​.1%),554亿美元(占总数的16.9%)。为了帮助运营商询问计划和预算我们挖掘数据的正确问题,并在2021/22中确定了您考虑的5个事实。防火投资事实#1在报告的14年期间,火灾总成本增加了50%,总损失减少了47%,总支出增加了140.6%。这告诉我,防火是优先价值,值得投资,它可以节省生命,从而减少整体丢失。但它还强调预算要求增长并可能继续增长。 Therefore, it is more important than ever before that we protect the investment in fire prevention, understand and maximize it, which as many knows is easier said than done! So, ask yourself, do you have a clear understanding of your investment, tools, and resources needed to stay safe and prevent fires? Do you have the data necessary to identify opportunities for improvement? Are you exposing operations to unnecessary risk? Fire grade products The costs of meeting the required standards within the system are passed down to the buyer Fact #2, Expenditure on fire grade products represent 16% of total costs at $54 B. This is the ‘cost of meeting ‘fire grade’ standards in the manufacture of equipment, particularly electrical systems equipment and ‘smart’ equipment with its greater use of computer components.’ These systems represent a significant investment for the operation, the costs of meeting the required standards within the system are passed down to the buyer and defines the quality of the system. Therefore, the question is, are the systems being properly maintained to maximize life span and ensure it maintains its fire grade standard? Are you adhering with manufacturer warranty requirements, will it work when needed? Large ongoing investment Fact #3, Expenditure on fire maintenance and fire retardants represents 13.4% of total costs at $44 B. This includes the ‘costs of fire maintenance, which was defined to include system maintenance, industrial fire brigades, and training programs for occupational fire protection and fire safety.’ Expenditure on fire maintenance and fire retardants represents 13.4% of total costs at $44 B Fire Retardants include the ‘costs of fire retardants and all product testing associated with design for fire safety.’ This represents a large ongoing investment in resources and budget for operations, the question is, are they being used efficiently, are they adhering to regulations, is the training being done? Is the money being well spent? Investment in fire prevention Fact #4, Expenditure on disaster planning and preparing/maintaining standards represent only 1.2% of total costs or $4 B. This represents the ‘costs of disaster recovery plans and backups’ and the ‘costs of preparing and maintaining standards.’ What jumps out at me on this one, is it appears to be a relatively small amount in relation to other areas, so the question becomes, is it being given the right priority, could we further reduce losses and maximize the investment in fire prevention if we improved how we planned for disasters and managed standards? Fire insurance expenditure Net fire insurance expenditure represents, 7% of total costs or $23.6 B Fact #5, Net fire insurance expenditure represents, 7% of total costs or $23.6 B. This is ‘defined as the difference between the insurance premiums paid by property owners (personal and commercial) for insuring their property from fire and the damages claimed from insurers.’ Which says investing in the insurance necessary to protect the operation has a sizable impact on the operating budget and you need it to be there and available if a fire strikes to ensure business continuity. Therefore, the questions to ask yourself are, if the insurance is needed, will you have the data to defend your claim? Or if it’s not needed because fire prevention is top notch, will you have the data to negotiate lower rates? How long will it take to compile the data necessary to support your argument, is the data believable? Other important questions There is no doubt, fire Prevention is an important and significant investment for organizations, but the question is, is there a better way of managing it, do you have the data necessary to ensure compliance with operating regulations, are staff operating efficiently, is the job getting done? Unfortunately for many, we simply don’t have the data necessary to answer these and many other important questions when it comes to planning and defending your operating budget. Fire prevention is complicated, the building code for commercial properties has over 200 pages Fire prevention is complicated, the building code for commercial properties has over 200 pages detailing the safety procedures, products and signs that must be installed and functioning 24hours a day, 7 days a week. That must be inspected and tested daily, weekly, monthly, yearly to reduce losses and improve safety. Fire prevention policies The challenge is not in understanding what must be done but in how we manage it. Many organizations are still relying on spreadsheets and signing off the ticket on the fire extinguisher for tracking and monitoring fire prevention procedures. Hoping that when a faulty, missing, or broken fire extinguisher gets identified that the right people are informed, that the issue gets addressed. This lack of visibility presents a lot of opportunities for something to go wrong, and when it does have dire consequences. It is our belief that it is time to digitally transform how we manage fire safety and procedures. Relying on the ways of yesterday, are no longer going to cut it and are actually exposing operations to more risk and cost than is necessary. Technology has evolved in ways that enable operations to cost-effectively eliminate the fear, uncertainty, and doubt in fire prevention policies and procedures and have the data to prove it!

变频