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我们现在在美国看到的火灾比过去几十年要少。然而,从数据上看,如果你家发生火灾,你今天比40年前更有可能死亡。如今拥有人造家具和开放式平面图的家庭比过去的家庭燃烧得更快。

火灾发生后,住户可能只有不到三分钟的逃生时间。每24秒,美国的消防部门就会对某个地方发生的火灾做出反应。在全国范围内,每3小时10分钟就有一名平民死于火灾,每43分钟就有一名家庭火灾受伤。

NFPA报告-“1980年以来美国的消防安全”

这些都是美国国家消防协会(NFPA)最新的报告《1980年以来的美国消防安全》中提出的见解。该项目由NFPA赞助和执行,由消防研究基金会提供行政监督。

该报告指出,自1973年发表具有里程碑意义的《美国燃烧》报告以来,在减少火灾和火灾死亡人数方面取得了很大进展。这份新报告着重于1980年以来的变化趋势。

安装洒水装置和烟雾报警器

在过去50年里,家庭中广泛使用的烟雾报警器是消防安全方面最成功的案例之一

由规范和标准执行并得到公共教育支持的工程解决方案的结合,有效地降低了报告的火灾和火灾死亡人数。增加洒水装置作为额外的安全层,进一步降低火灾死亡率。

在住宅中广泛使用烟雾报警器是过去50年来消防安全方面最成功的案例之一,尽管20.5%的独户住宅没有安装烟雾报警器,7.6%根本没有安装烟雾报警器。喷水灭火系统控制了97%的火灾,但全年只有5%的住宅单元装有喷水灭火系统。

在住宅方面,公寓大楼每1,000起报告火灾的死亡人数有所下降,而监管较宽松的一户和两户住宅的死亡人数有所上升。

烹饪是家庭火灾的主要原因

还需要做更多的工作。做饭仍然是家庭火灾和家庭火灾伤害的主要原因,也是家庭火灾死亡的主要原因之一。烹饪是导致2014-2018年火灾和火灾死亡人数超过1980-1984年的唯一主要火灾原因,这强调了该领域需要消防安全解决方案。

UL对新型线圈系列的消防安全标准是朝着正确方向迈出的一步,但还需要做更多的工作,以确保像食物准备这样简单的事情不会导致死亡和破坏。

吸烟是家庭火灾死亡的主要原因

在过去40年的大部分时间里,吸烟一直是导致家庭火灾死亡的主要原因,并一直是2014-2018年全年的主要原因。1980年至2018年,每年发生的房屋建筑火灾数量从73.4万起减少到36.3万起,死亡人数从5200人减少到2720人。

调整至2018年美元后,年度财产损失水平相对稳定,从1980年的87亿美元小幅下降至2018年的80亿美元。在此期间受伤人数从19 700人减少到11 200人。在人口方面,1980-2018年期间,每千人的火灾率从3.2降至1.1,死亡人数从22.9降至8.3,人均损失从38.4美元降至24.5美元。

医院和疗养院发生火灾

美国国家防火协会的研究还分析了涉及医院和疗养院的火灾

NFPA的研究还分析了涉及医院和疗养院的火灾,以及灾难性的多死亡火灾和荒野/城市界面(WUI)的火灾,因为它们有可能造成重大的人员损失。

在过去的四十年里,医院、疗养院、学校和酒店等建筑对消防安全的要求越来越严格,因此,这类建筑发生灾难性火灾的情况现在很少见。

预防医院火灾取得重大进展

在防止医院火灾方面取得了很大的进展。在1980年至1984年期间,美国消防部门估计每年平均应对7100起医院火灾,平均每年造成5人死亡。2014-2018年,估计平均每年只有1100起医院和临终关怀火灾造成一人死亡。这一时期的死亡病例都不是病人。

荒野/城市界面(WUI)已经增加,这些地区的火灾问题也越来越严重。WUI火灾烧毁房屋、汽车和其他各种财产。在试图疏散时,致命伤害可能发生在家中、室外或车辆中。由于人为的引燃比雷电引起的火灾持续时间更长。人类引起的WUI火灾占WUI火灾的97%。

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拉里•安德森
拉里•安德森编辑器中,TheBigRedGuide.com,诺丁山媒体

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Seeking to help small and medium fire departments replace paper documentation, incident management systems offer low-cost digitization. Environmental awareness From Rosenbauer A topic among fire apparatus companies is idle reduction systems designed to shut off the main engine in a fire apparatus when not needed, eliminating loud diesel engine noise and exhaust, while maintaining power for lighting and air conditioning, for example. It is a reflection of growing environmental concerns among fire manufacturers. For example, Rosenbauer’s Green Star system makes idle reduction easy, using electronic controls to shut down the chassis engine on-scene (if the fire pump is not engaged or no aerial operations under way), and starting a diesel-driven Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). Pierce Volterra zero-emissions pumpers The first Pierce Volterra zero-emissions pumper has been placed in service in Madison Pierce launched their Volterra platform of electric vehicles. 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锂离子电池导致全球垃圾火灾
锂离子电池导致全球垃圾火灾

最近,在英国柯克代尔的Gaskells垃圾回收厂发生了一场火灾,周日凌晨,一波又一波的浓烟笼罩了利物浦北部的天空。消防队员与大火搏斗了12个小时,附近的居民被建议留在室内,关闭窗户。大量的废料在燃烧,消防人员利用空中平台到达火灾的部分区域。这次活动代表了火灾对废物和回收计划的挑战,这是一个重大的全球问题。垃圾、纸张和塑料制品几乎占垃圾火灾的一半。其他容易发生火灾的废物设施包括废金属、有机废物、化学品、建筑及拆卸(C&D)和电子废料。2020年,美国垃圾回收设施发生火灾317起,加州、俄亥俄州、德克萨斯州和纽约州发生的火灾最多。锂离子电池在废物流中的贡献锂离子电池是全球垃圾火灾的一个因素最近垃圾火灾增加的一个可能原因是锂离子电池的使用(和处置)的增加。在我们这个便携式电子产品和电动汽车的时代,这些可充电电池无处不在。电池内的物质处于压力下,所以任何刺穿都会在锂和空气中的水之间产生反应,产生热量,并可能引起火灾。 There is also danger in the release of fluoride gases when the batteries ignite. Lithium-ion batteries in the waste stream are a factor in waste fires across the globe, including Japan, Austria, Sweden, France, German, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and the United States. Other Likely causes of waste fires Other causes of waste fires include aerosols, chemicals and butane cans; hot and dry environments; recycling of chemicals and hazardous materials; sparks from equipment; and arson. Some observers have suggested that the pandemic may have contributed to waste fires through the disposal of half-empty bottles of alcohol-based sanitizer, which are flammable. Enabling Early detection with thermal cameras Thermal cameras can be connected to sprinklers or automated fire doors to provide early response As the fire in Kirkdale illustrates, extinguishing a waste fire is time-consuming and resource-intensive. However, early detection can address the risk more efficiently. For example, thermals cameras can be used to monitor temperatures inside and outside a waste plant. The cameras can be programmed to provide an alarm when a predefined temperature is reached (as a warning), and again when a higher temperature is reached (an alarm). Smart algorithms enable these cameras to avoid false alarms triggered by, for example, sunlight or cars driving by. The cameras can also be used for routine inspections, for instance, to identify electrical faults, over-heating equipment and other potential ignition sources. Thermal cameras can also be connected to sprinklers or automated fire doors to provide early response. fire prevention plan Waste site managers should devise a fire prevention plan (FPP) that can minimize the likelihood of a fire, seek to extinguish fire within four hours, and minimize the spread of fire to neighboring areas. Fire is also used to manage and dispose of waste. As much as a billion tons of waste is burned in open and uncontrolled fires around the world each year, or almost half of the waste generated. Waste disposal fires typically burn at lower temperatures, and harmful substances such as dioxins can form when PVC plastic is burned, which can adversely affect human health. Burning plastics in open fires releases CO2 and other greenhouse gases, and plastics that are not totally burned can pollute nearby land and water. Burning waste can have negative consequences for the urban poor and waste pickers who are more likely to be exposed to it.

防火:成本与机会分析
防火:成本与机会分析

随着组织开始计划明年的经营预算,这是一个仔细观察防火的好时机,它的成本计算和它所提供的价值是什么。这是看与防火和寻找有关的政策和程序的完美时间,寻找改进和优化领域。为了帮助促进本讨论,我转向2017年消防研究基金会提出的报告,该报告基于从1980年至2014年收集的数据探讨了美国的总火灾成本。我欣赏数据的改善机会该报告本身有点日期,提出了对火灾的实际成本的看法,优先事项基于花费并凸显改进机会。该报告定义了总火灾成本,作为消防事故导致的所有净支出的集体和所有净亏损。该报告界定了总火灾成本,因为所有净消防净支出的集体良好的新闻是勤奋的工作,只能偿还损失,只有代表总成本的一小部分,预防为2731亿美元(占总数的83​​.1%),554亿美元(占总数的16.9%)。为了帮助运营商询问计划和预算我们挖掘数据的正确问题,并在2021/22中确定了您考虑的5个事实。防火投资事实#1在报告的14年期间,火灾总成本增加了50%,总损失减少了47%,总支出增加了140.6%。这告诉我,防火是优先价值,值得投资,它可以节省生命,从而减少整体丢失。但它还强调预算要求增长并可能继续增长。 Therefore, it is more important than ever before that we protect the investment in fire prevention, understand and maximize it, which as many knows is easier said than done! So, ask yourself, do you have a clear understanding of your investment, tools, and resources needed to stay safe and prevent fires? Do you have the data necessary to identify opportunities for improvement? Are you exposing operations to unnecessary risk? Fire grade products The costs of meeting the required standards within the system are passed down to the buyer Fact #2, Expenditure on fire grade products represent 16% of total costs at $54 B. This is the ‘cost of meeting ‘fire grade’ standards in the manufacture of equipment, particularly electrical systems equipment and ‘smart’ equipment with its greater use of computer components.’ These systems represent a significant investment for the operation, the costs of meeting the required standards within the system are passed down to the buyer and defines the quality of the system. Therefore, the question is, are the systems being properly maintained to maximize life span and ensure it maintains its fire grade standard? Are you adhering with manufacturer warranty requirements, will it work when needed? Large ongoing investment Fact #3, Expenditure on fire maintenance and fire retardants represents 13.4% of total costs at $44 B. This includes the ‘costs of fire maintenance, which was defined to include system maintenance, industrial fire brigades, and training programs for occupational fire protection and fire safety.’ Expenditure on fire maintenance and fire retardants represents 13.4% of total costs at $44 B Fire Retardants include the ‘costs of fire retardants and all product testing associated with design for fire safety.’ This represents a large ongoing investment in resources and budget for operations, the question is, are they being used efficiently, are they adhering to regulations, is the training being done? Is the money being well spent? Investment in fire prevention Fact #4, Expenditure on disaster planning and preparing/maintaining standards represent only 1.2% of total costs or $4 B. This represents the ‘costs of disaster recovery plans and backups’ and the ‘costs of preparing and maintaining standards.’ What jumps out at me on this one, is it appears to be a relatively small amount in relation to other areas, so the question becomes, is it being given the right priority, could we further reduce losses and maximize the investment in fire prevention if we improved how we planned for disasters and managed standards? Fire insurance expenditure Net fire insurance expenditure represents, 7% of total costs or $23.6 B Fact #5, Net fire insurance expenditure represents, 7% of total costs or $23.6 B. This is ‘defined as the difference between the insurance premiums paid by property owners (personal and commercial) for insuring their property from fire and the damages claimed from insurers.’ Which says investing in the insurance necessary to protect the operation has a sizable impact on the operating budget and you need it to be there and available if a fire strikes to ensure business continuity. Therefore, the questions to ask yourself are, if the insurance is needed, will you have the data to defend your claim? Or if it’s not needed because fire prevention is top notch, will you have the data to negotiate lower rates? How long will it take to compile the data necessary to support your argument, is the data believable? Other important questions There is no doubt, fire Prevention is an important and significant investment for organizations, but the question is, is there a better way of managing it, do you have the data necessary to ensure compliance with operating regulations, are staff operating efficiently, is the job getting done? Unfortunately for many, we simply don’t have the data necessary to answer these and many other important questions when it comes to planning and defending your operating budget. Fire prevention is complicated, the building code for commercial properties has over 200 pages Fire prevention is complicated, the building code for commercial properties has over 200 pages detailing the safety procedures, products and signs that must be installed and functioning 24hours a day, 7 days a week. That must be inspected and tested daily, weekly, monthly, yearly to reduce losses and improve safety. Fire prevention policies The challenge is not in understanding what must be done but in how we manage it. Many organizations are still relying on spreadsheets and signing off the ticket on the fire extinguisher for tracking and monitoring fire prevention procedures. Hoping that when a faulty, missing, or broken fire extinguisher gets identified that the right people are informed, that the issue gets addressed. This lack of visibility presents a lot of opportunities for something to go wrong, and when it does have dire consequences. It is our belief that it is time to digitally transform how we manage fire safety and procedures. Relying on the ways of yesterday, are no longer going to cut it and are actually exposing operations to more risk and cost than is necessary. Technology has evolved in ways that enable operations to cost-effectively eliminate the fear, uncertainty, and doubt in fire prevention policies and procedures and have the data to prove it!

变频